... Jerusalem ... 22 Just as the new earth and the new heavens will endure by my power, so your descendants and your name will endure ... Isaiah 66 (GNT), 18 ... Jerusalem will be rebuilt, and its PALACE restored. Jeremiah 30:18 (GNT)

22
May
2011

Israel's history and boarders through ages, maps

Through out the history of Israel the boarders of Israel have been changing. How was Israel like in ancient times and up to now? How did this come about?

An overview of Israel's history while using a list of maps, although incomplete, regarding Israels boarders since King David's time up to our modern times, tells the story.

The Kingdom of Israel The Twelve Tribes of Israel around 1200-1250 BC

At the time of King David and King Salomon. The Twelve Tribes in the Kingdom of Israel.
After King Salomon, the Kingdom of Israel was separated in two kingdoms, each ruled by its own Israelite kings.

The biblical Transjordan - the tribes of Manasseh, Gad and Reuben territory - is mentioned in Joshua 1:12-14:

12 But to the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh, Joshua said, 13 “Remember the command that Moses the servant of the LORD gave you after he said, 'The LORD your God will give you rest by giving you this land.' 14 Your wives, your children and your livestock may stay in the land that Moses gave you east of the Jordan, but all your fighting men, ready for battle, must cross over ahead of your fellow Israelites. You are to help them

And in 2 Samuel 17:21-22 to chapter 19 as the place King David went when he was fleeing out of Jerusalem because of the coup of his son Absalom.

21 After they had gone, the two climbed out of the well and went to inform King David. They said to him, “Set out and cross the river at once; Ahithophel has advised such and such against you.” 22 So David and all the people with him set out and crossed the Jordan. By daybreak, no one was left who had not crossed the Jordan.

Iudaea Province, first centuryProvince of Iudaea

1st to 2nd century AD, at the time of the Roman Empire's occupation of the region including the Kingdom of Israel.

Some of the Israelites returned out of the Assyrian and Babylonian exile to Israel and joined the Israelites who were still living there. Eventually they reestablished a free Kingdom of Israel, which the Roman Empire conquered and named the Provence of Iudaea. During that period the Israelites organized several revolts.

132 - 135 AD the Romans defeated the Jews in the Bar Kokhba's revolt.
After this revolt Jerusalem was given the name Aelia Capitolina, became a Roman colony and a pagan city. The former Roman name given to Israel, the province of Judaea or Iudaea was also changed into the province of Syria Palestina.
All in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to to the region.

The name Palestine became wide spread also in the international community. Just like the word Palestinian - not to be confused with Philistine, which referred to other peoples the Israelites dealt with in the past in ancient Israel. - which has been derived from Palestine, has been used later especially since the nineteen sixties as a name for certain peoples of Arab origins that in the more recent past came to live in the land of Israel while the Jews have continuously populated it for nearly 3000 years and with, by intervals, centuries of governess over Israel.

PalestineTerritory of Palestine before devision in 1921

Later the name province of Syria Palestina was refered to as Palestine where Jewish people and other peoples lived. The first large wave of modern immigration, the First Alijah, started in 1881 with mainly Orthodox Jews going to Israel escaping progroms in Easters Europe. Soon others followed until the Fifth Aliyah in the 1930s, while Palestine was already under the British Mandate for Palestine. Even though the last Aliyah caused the Arab Revolt of 1936-1939 by the Arab peoples living in Palestine, Jews continued to go to their homeland in Palestine during and after WW II. And to this day there are Aliyah's of Jewish people immigrating to the State of Israel.

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in WW I, the League of Nations, later the United Nations, issued the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922. So the British would be responsible to put their own 1917 Balfour Declaration into effect in the territory of Palestine after WW I. 

Territory of Palestine devided since 1921

Palestine divided

In accordance with the Balfour Declaration of 1917 the League of Nations including the British Empire wanted a Jewish Homeland established in Palestine. And the British also made concession and promises about land to the Arab peoples in the region in turn for their support in defeating the Ottoman Empire.

The mandate came into effect in 1923 and lasted until 1948. After the British devision of Palestine into the territory west of the river Jordan, where the homeland for the Jewish people would be established, being today's State of Israel established in 1948. And the territory east of the river Jordan, Transjordan which later became Jordan.

This devision was endorsed by the British Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill in 1921. This led to the arrangement whereby Transjordan - which became independent from the British Administration and the auspices of the League of Nations in 1928 - would be removed from the territory of Palestine where the Jewish homeland would be established. This removed effectively 78% of the territory leaving only 22% for the application of the Balfour Declaration to form the Jewish homeland.

The 14th of May 1948, the day before expiration of the British Mandate, the Jewish leaders declared the independence of the State of Israel. The following day the Arab-Israeli War broke out by the attack of Arab countries: Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Saudi Arabia which sent its military to fight under Egypt's command. Yemen also declared war, but didn't come into action. Transjordan annexed: East Jerusalem and the West Bank, while Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. In the 1949 Armistice Agreement, temporary demarcation lines were agreed, the Green Line.

Proposed boarder for IsraelRed line: 1919 proposed borders for Jewish Homeland

Faisal Weizmann, one of the Zionist representatives at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, proposed boundaries outlined for the proposed Jewish Homeland in Palestine, the red line. It was not accepted.

France also influenced the talks and ultimately the outcome of the conferences convened to discuss the boundaries of the different nations to be in the region of the Middle East, for it had a Mandate for Syria and Lebanon. The boundaries between the British-Franche Mandate territory was formulated in broad terms, while those within the British Mandate territory were not.

But the British already knew they would divide the territory of Palestine before they received the mandate, because of their conflicting and shifting commitments made to both parties, Jewish and Arab, in the past regarding the region.

 

The State of Israel

Israel's current boarders

After the Arab-Israel war in 1967, named the Six-Days War, Israel regained control over the territories Jordan and Egypt annexed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Gaza strip, the Golan Hights, East Jerusalem and parts of Judah and Samaria, also called the West Bank. That is the territories behind the 1949 Green Line.

Israel's current boarders are necessary in order for it to be able to keep their nation safe. Israel relies on its military forces the IDF, Israel Defense Forces, to defend its boarders and insure safety within the nation.

Information on Israels security needs in relation to its boarders, watch: 
Israel's Critical Security Needs for a Viable Peace

The IDF was officially set up out of the paramilitary group Hagana, meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew, and by incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi in May 1948 by the order of Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion, who became the first Prime Minister of the State of Israel.

The soldiers who complete the IDF basic training, go to the swearing-in ceremony on Masada. A practice initiated by the Chief of Staff of the IDF, Moshe Dayan. The ceremony ends with the words: "Masada shall not fall again."


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Author: © Mrs A. vd Laan-LeitoPosted in: History