... Jerusalem ... 22 Just as the new earth and the new heavens will endure by my power, so your descendants and your name will endure ... Isaiah 66 (GNT), 18 ... Jerusalem will be rebuilt, and its PALACE restored. Jeremiah 30:18 (GNT)

23
May
2011

Israel part 3 Arab-Israeli War 1948 and 1967

Israel has been fighting several wars since the State of Israel was established the 14th of May 1948.
Two of them being the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the 1967 Six-Days War.

Which circumstances and events led to these wars? What was the outcome? How did these wars affected Israel's borders? Does Israel have defensible borders to insure safety within its nation?

State of IsraelThe League of Nations, later the United Nations, issued the 1922 British Mandate for Palestine. Which gave the British temporary control over the region of Palestine in the Middle East after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in WW I. The British had made conflicting agreements with both the Jewish leaders, resulting in the 1917 Balfour Declaration as with the Arab leader for their support in defeating the Ottoman Empire.

There for they divided the area into a territory east of the river Jordan, which became Transjordan and later an independent state, Jordan. And a territory west of the river Jordan where the Jewish homeland would be established, referred to as Palestine. The British Mandate would come into affect in 1923 and last until the 15th of  May 1948. Arrangement had to be made for Jewish homeland before the end of the British Mandate.

1948 Arab-Israeli War

In November 1947 the United Nations approved a Partition Plan for Palestine, that is the territory west of the river Jordan where the Jewish homeland would be established, because of the tensions between the Jews and those who came to call themselves Palestinian. From 1936 to 1939 there was already an Arab Revolt in Palestine against the influx of Jewish people who immigrated by means of organized Aliyah to Palestine. This revolt was one of reasons the British issued the 1939 White Paper, in November 1938 on the eve of Kristallnacht, the progrom on Jewish people in Nazi Germany and Austria, in which they made clear they would eventually stop the influx of Jews into Palestine. This in turn caused the rejection by surrounding countries of Palestine and elsewhere of thousands and thousands of Jewish people fleeing Nazi Germany.

This 1947 Partition Plan provided for two States in Palestine, a Jewish and a Palestinian, and Jerusalem would be an international city. The Jewish Community accepted the plan, but the Arab League and the Arab High Committee rejected it, after which the Committee declared a three-day strike in Palestine which resulted in Arab bands targeting the Jewish people and eventually the collapse of the Arab-Palestinian economy.

On the 14th of May 1948 David Ben-Gurion and the Jewish leaders declared the State of Israel. It was quickly recognized by the Soviet Union, the United States and many other nations followed. In 1949 Israel was accepted as a member of the United Nations by majority of vote. The day following the declaration of the State of Israel, when the British would leave Israel, armies of the Arab countries attacked Israel. Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq and Saudi Arabia which sent a military contingent to fight under Egyptian command. Yemen also declared war to Israel, but didn't come into action.

After a year of fighting a sees fire was agreed. In accordance with the 1949 Armistice Agreement temporary demarcation lines were agreed which became known as the Green Line. [see map, source: Wikipedia]
Transjordan annexed: East Jerusalem and the West Bank, while Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. About 700.000 Palestinian fled the country or were expelled, and some of them or their descendants are nowadays still in refuge camps in the region. In 1949 on the 11th of May Israel was accepted as a member of the United Nations by a majority of vote.

1967 Six-Day War

The diplomatic Israeli-Arab relations remained problematic. In 1967 the Egyptian president Abdel Nasser called for the complete destruction of Israel, and announced a partial blockade of Israel's access to the Red Sea. Egypt also expelled UN peace keepers who were stationed since 1957 in the Sinai. Israel saw this as a justification for acts of war, and it launched a preemptive strike that started the 1967 Six-Day War on the 5th of June.

Later Ariel Sharon would say that this war already started 21/2 years earlier because Israel decided to act against the plans of Jordan and Syria to divert the Jordan river. Jordan wanted to channel the Yarmouk river and Syria wanted to built reservoirs at this river. This would have effected the Jordan river, and there for the watter supply for Israel, which including the Yarmouk river supplied Israel with 40% of its fresh water. April 1967 Israel conducted air raids into Syria to halt the work.

Ariel Sharon's words:
"People generally regard June 5th 1967 as the day the Six-Day War began.That is the official date, but in reality it started two and a half years earlier on the day Israel decided to act against the division of the Jordan river." [source: Wikipedia]

During the 1967 Six-Days War, Israel regained control over the territories Jordan and Egypt annexed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Gaza strip, the Golan Hights, East Jerusalem and parts of Judah and Samaria, also called the West Bank. And Israel got also control over the Sinai Peninsula. That is the territories behind the 1949 Green Line, which became the administrative boundary between Israel and the territories it regained.

Israel and Egypt signed the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty after which complete withdrawal of Israel out of the Sinai Peninsula followed in 1982. In 1994 Israel and Jordan also signed a peace treaty. In 2005 Israel unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, which is under Palestinian authority. Although to this day terrorist organizations organize military attacks from the Gaza Strip on Israel. The West Bank and the Golan Hights are still under Israeli control.

To this day it is necessary for Israelites to live safely in Israel to have secure and defensible borders. It's important  for Israel to retain its actual borders as obtained at the time the British divided the complete territory of Palestine into the area east, Jewish homeland, and the one west, Transjordan/Jordan, of the river Jordan. And borders which changed after loosing certain areas in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, but regained them during the Six-Day war in 1967.

The following gives an indication of how important it is for Israel to retain its actual borders, Israels security needs demands this, watch: Israel's Critical Security Needs for a Viable Peace


Shema Israel Elohay [Hear Israel/Hear my God]

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Author: © Mrs A. vd Laan-LeitoPosted in: History